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tv   Key Capitol Hill Hearings  CSPAN  July 5, 2016 4:15am-6:01am EDT

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can ignore them. and there is no penalty for that. >> i thank the panelists for agreeing to come up here and talk. i thank you all for coming. go file some foias. >> there is some of our live coverage today. supreme court reporters give us look at the supreme court term. they talk about the death of antonine sculley up and its effect. hosts theon crime we will hear from grover norquist on the -- c-span's washington journal, live every day with news and
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policy issues that attack you. -- ag up for you, aiken congressional discretion with people on what is left on until recess.nal join the discussion. >> education leaders from across the nation gathered in washington to discuss ideas on how to improve education for children and k-12. in recruitingsted leaders are key components to success. is one hour and 40 minutes. >> good morning, everyone. it is great to see so many of
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you back up and at them. ordered more coffee for this morning so we hope it it will help with the scotians. i want to take a moment to thank all of you for not only become to be for an's you make for the education of the state, but i want to take a special moment to take those who have worked tirelessly to put on this week of programming. please join me as we congratulate the staff as we stand. [applause] our next speaker has had a very him for -- a very interesting route into the classroom. she is the 2015 teacher of the year. [applause] >> yes.
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she did not necessarily start saying i want to be a teacher. jockey and as a disk transition to a medical assistant. she moved into pet center. she was also a journalist. eventually, teaching chose her. she knows a lot about what she is doing and that is why she was last year's teacher of the year. her experiences are unique. she speaks -- she teaches in amarillo, texas, and says have her day as a high school english teacher and the other day, handholding, and mentoring so they can grow in the teaching profession. her students come from a many, many different backgrounds. amarillo is one of the cities that helps refugees find new paths in life. as a result, shanna works with
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many people who speak english as a sake of language. year, she isof the chasing the conversation in this country about working with students in poverty in a crossing barriers and working with those who have faith in extremely tough challenges in their young lives. please welcome me in welcoming shanna peoples to the stage. >> thank you. oh, my goodness. good morning, everybody. it's amazing to be with you this morning and to welcome the 2016 class of teachers of the year. [applause] >> i want to to bring a story to you from texas, where i am from, and from my childhood, if you
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will indulge me. , i look ate education. when i was a kid, my sister found this cat. there was a lot wrong with this cat. i knew that because i had seen out ifking anti-freeze place next her. i knew it was not right. she named the gary. gary one day, true to his name and his background, decides that the best thing to do is to crawl into the engine block of my mother's grand prix on one cold morning. my mother started the car, and when she did, gary got caught up somewhere in the car. if you have never heard that sound before, it is quite jarring.
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my mother, true to form, her response to all emergencies was to burst into hysterical screaming and crying, which brought my father. my father, true to his form, whenever he heard my mother be like that, he treated her like she was on fire and needed to what her out. he was looking for the quickest way to make things baby not better, but maybe stop and be quiet. he turned to me and said, and he see my shelves? i relies, he is going to shoot into the engine of my mother's car. going intosister hysterics. muttering inther
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hysterics looking for his gun and i think we have to call the only person in my family who has sense, and that is my grandmother. for a woman who was so calm, and she was medicated to feel that way, she could drive like nascar. she drove like 88. she knew she had a precious few seconds before this whole thing would go south. she did the one thing which no one thought to do. that ited in and saw was not that bad. gary's head was caught in the fan blade. i need you to go in the house and get a towel and a pillow case. it sounded so much better than a gun. i did that and i brought it back to her and she said, i'm going
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to take the towel and wrapped it around gary. i'm going to use that to get him out from the fan blade and each told this. he is going to be scared and he will hurt himself. we are going to go to the vet. that is exactly what happened. saw that he had a cut over his eye. long, veryat his weird life, as the cat of wilshire street. why do i tell you that? to me, that story illustrates how we respond to problems in education in that country. it is the three responses i have noticed the most. the hysteria and screaming and tears. there is a lot of that. saycially with social media me to be why i quit posts, or
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there are a lot of shotgun solutions to problems in education that we are fond of. yet efficient ways we deal with things think. there are a few people that myroach the weight things grandmother did which is true innovation. my grandmother was an innovative thinker because she was able to solve problems creatively. i take that a step further. solving problems with fear, using what you have, purpose, in a different way. that is what she did and that is what you need in and nation. we also no longer have a knowledge economy. the world does not care about what you know. it only cares about what you can do with what you know.
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that is critical for the types of students i teach. teachers all around the country are facing the same challenges i do. that up tocing kids 90% of them are bored and disengaged with school all of the day. when they talk to teachers, they find out that two of every five teachers, especially in high poverty schools, are leaving. one of the things that shocked me after i came back to my campus after a year of being away was to see those numbers play out in real time on my campus. some of the best features of my campus were walking out of my door for transfer. that is a real thing. the teachers who do say say they --'t feel like the pressure
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the professional development we could give them applies to the lives. even more scary, things i have taught to children to those is that the three biggest timelines a big dangers, new texas, areornia, in ining steep drops teacher programs because kids are getting the message that to be a teacher is to check your creativity at the door and your intelligence. it kills me. what we need more than anything is innovative thinking. i don't call myself a teacher. i call myself a literacy salesperson. i am running the race between my
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curriculum, that is largely based between getting 16 and 17-year-old young man, usually non-english speakers to pass a test, a standardized test. my class has failed at seven or more times. likein a race with places blue beacon truck wash in amarillo that promise these young men that they will give them up to $20 an hour in tips to pressure wash cattle trucks. that is a very real equation for many of the students i teach. do i sit here where nothing but failure is what i have experienced or do i go for someone's by you, maybe not my brain, but something about me? that is why i say innovation is an equity issue at its heart.
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i love the way that pedro ne between between equality and equity. equality is as if we dump this whole thing of shoes in front of a hunch of kids and save there you go, equality, everybody has shoes. equity is that the shoes fit. and that's what innovation is. innovation is making those shoes fit for every kid. i think the only way we can do that is by remembering three simple things we already have. we are just not using them well, like my grandmother's idea of the pillowcase and the towel and that's the way we used time and the trust we give each other and that's teachers as coaches. on my campus, my principal made a deal and said if i shift of the schedule, will you teach all of your classes in the morning
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and then coach in the afternoon? i said sure as long as that coaching does not mean i am one more arm of the testing octopus tentacle. it has been one of the best things i ever did. i was able to work with teachers and shore up those teachers who needed a little bit of work like david. when i started working with him, my principal was ready to fire . after working with him and identifying some things he wanted to work on, and giving him relentless positive support like i would my students, david went from being burned out to fired up in three years and became a statewide literacy trainer. what can you do with the teachers on your campus, the ones who really believe in this, who really are ready to make those shoes fit, who are the most innovative and creative thinkers?
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they are the ones whose cars are still there when you pull out in the evening. those are your teachers who will make those shoes fit. those are your passionate teachers. you have to give them time. time is something we set we don't have enough of. we do if we use it well. i notice when i became a department chair, i tried to do what i had seen done which was not so good modeling. it was adults standing up in front of other adults, and in my case, 30 adults with english degrees, and reading things to them often agenda. like, you cannot wear jeans at school except on friday. that was being -- that was taking up my time. it's when i made the firm commitment to not waste time.
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to hold true to the idea that if we are in a room together and looking at each other across the table, then we are able to be vulnerable with each other, be creative with each other, we are able to innovate. that is only if i move all of that other administrivia off. and use apps to take care of the other stuff. but treat that time together as sacred. the last idea is trust. sometimes that seems to be the hardest one. trust is something we struggle with in this country. for some reason, we really struggle with it around teachers. there is so much fear in this country right now. fear that is being exploited and used because it is cheap and it's easy.
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anybody can do it. anybody can tell you a ghost story about everything going wrong. it's the creators who have a hard time getting their voice heard. those of you who are creators know this and that's why you are so tired. creativity is difficult and it takes a long time but it takes trust and you cannot have trust if you are afraid. as i have traveled, one of the best things i have found is that all over the world, the people who do this work are the same. i don't care what language you speak or what your culture is, you believe that hope is something we create by standing at our doors every day. you believe that the seeds we plant in our students are going to grow and bear fruit in a better world for all of us on that does not matter if you are a teacher behind a wall in gaza
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with rocket holes in your ceiling or in a poor, isolated school in china where you're not getting regular paychecks, or if you are in peru digging the wells for your school. you are the same type of person. if you are in north amarillo trying to find ways to keep boys out of blue beacon truck wash. we have to honor and trust that commitment. trust teachers for the professionals that they are. teachers are artists of human potential. but more than that, they are warriors. they are warriors of hope that do battle against despair and we need them more than ever now in this country. only teachers stand at the doorway and look at kid after kid and say, you matter and you are worth everything we invest to make that happen.
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in these countries all over the world that i have visited, one thing becomes clear, they believe deeply in education as the only way out for many of them. peru, definitely because they are at the very bottom in any kind of scores. there is this huge energy and push toward getting their teachers up to speed and investing in their schools. that is true in china as well. in china, they were somewhat disappointed that i could not give them a magic solution. one principal got very angry at me because she cap saying through the translator, give me one thing, tell me one thing we can do to improve. i said, trust your teachers. she asked my translator to re-translate that because she could not believe it was something so stupid.
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it's true. we have to trust each other and stop blaming each other. a fellow texan and social scientist says that wayne, as it's defined in social science research, is the discharge of pain and discomfort. it is painful and it is uncomfortable to work with human beings in a very human enterprise that is teaching. if we trust each other, it can be done. i want to leave you with a story that i read about. everybody panicked and they were terrified about the new millennium and they said what will happen to us in the new millennium? they went everywhere. one group gave what i think is the best prediction. the elders of the hopi nation, native american tribe that gives their predictions in earth
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metaphors. they said this new millennium is like a fast-moving river. because of that, people will be terrified and they will cling to the banks but those people who do that will suffer. it is only those people who let go and who float out into the center that will be ok. and the good news about that is that when you float into the center, you're not the only one there. if you look around this room, that's all of us and to me that's what gives me hope. it's an honor to be here and it's an honor to be your colleague and thank you for everything you do that makes hope real for children all across this country. thank you. [applause]
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[applause] >> thank you so much, that was tremendous. before we get started on our next plenary, i want to talk about a couple of things we had that we produced around the teacher pipeline and why this issue is so personally important to me. the slide that is up there now talks about six important papers we have created that are available on our website and through the app you have for this conference. we did a major paper that was around what the teacher shortages are and what we know and what are the facts and what are the myths? we did a paper on five major policies around certification, financial incentives, mentorship, evaluation and feed. that can teacher leadership in all those papers, some states are making a difference working on these issues and i urge you to look at them.
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for me, while the staff was doing amazing research and putting these papers together, the issue was more personal. i understand the value of what teachers can have and the outcomes we desire for the future workforce. i also understand that there is a different kind of teacher that is teaching these days. i had a teacher who made a tremendous impact on my life. i want to give you some numbers. i am a number person. 43 years in the high school classroom, 18 different principles, 13 different schools, nine different school districts, one state, and a starting salary of $7,000. that teacher is mr. bob anderson, my dad. my dad had an impact on so many thousands of students as a high school english teacher and a gifted teacher.
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there is not a lot of teachers like my dad out there who will have 43 years of service in the school district. that is why we are having some of the pipeline questions we have right now. my mother taught for 30 years before she retired. we are not having that same kind of pipeline where teachers can stay that long and be that invested. i think that's why it's a policy issue we need to be asking. i see with my own children in their high school where turnover rates are sometimes 20%. the next discussion we will have is from linda darling hammond, national expert and we are ecstatic to have her go through major finding she has been working on at the learning policy institute. she cannot be with us today because of travel problems but she will be on the phone and we have some slides for tenements with her and a panel discussion with three additional experts to talk through this important issue. without further ado, let me introduce through audio, linda darling hammond. [applause]
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>> thank you so much. i am glad to join you. i'm sorry not to be there in person but delighted you're taking on this very important topic which is such a recurring one in american education. i entered teaching in 1973 during a previous era of shortage. while there were many policies seeking to address the problem, many of them have disappeared and we are confronting, once again, the needs to find teachers in areas where not enough of them are available. i am going to ask amy to work with me to click through these slides and onto the second one. what we saw this last fall and many of you in your states saw this were a set of headlines coming up from all over the country about shortages occurring in math, science, special education, bilingual
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education and english as a second language. in these occurrences, there was surprised because we had teacher layoffs the last several years because of the recession. as soon as a little bit of money came back into the system, what we found is that we have had a very big drop in the number of people preparing to teach in this country. you can see that over that period from 2009 until 2014, which is the most recent data, there was a 30% drop in the number of people preparing to teach and that really has been a part of what has caused this latest round of teacher shortages around the country. going on to the next slide, what is happening is that while the
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demand for teachers was down during the time of the cuts and layoffs, that is changing and people are beginning to return to the class sizes and programs they had before with growing enrollment and with the kind of attrition we have in the united states. there is a projected increase in demand that will surpass our supply and is doing that right now and the prognosis, unless we change what we are doing, is pretty scary for the years ahead. one of the things that is critical here is the turnover rate we see in the united states. moving o to the next slide, the critical issue for many who have a long memory is we are having a deja vu all over again of the challenges we had a decade or more ago. on to next slide, you can see
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this reminder from california about how big a disparity in access to qualified teachers occurred back in 2000. it occurred across the country and is happening again now where students in high minority schools, low income schools, schools that are underperforming, were many times more likely to have teachers without the training in their content area than children in other schools. as states put together their educational equity plans, we see this emerging again where those ratios of assignments to teachers who also often turnover rapidly are very disproportionate. our major problem is closing the achievement gap.
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onto the next slide, what do we know? having been through this before, what do we know about what matters in recruiting and retaining teachers? how can we solve this problem once and for all? it is a problem that is relatively unique to the united states. it's not a problem in finland, singapore, canada and many other places which i have recently studied for their teacher policies. the attractiveness of the profession makes a difference. compensation matters in those countries that don't have shortages typically teachers earn the same amount as other college graduates. in the united states, depending on the state, teachers may earn anywhere from 60% -- 90% of what other college graduates earn in the states most attentive to teacher salaries. it is across the country.
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both entry and exits are tied to compensation levels. we have had a lot of teacher bashing in the last decade and that has undermined the attractiveness of the profession. young people who saw the layoffs happening said this does not look like a profession to go into. preparation matters. those prepared to teacher more likely to stay in teaching that those who come in without having a full preparation are three times more likely to leave in the first few years than those who have been fully prepared. it is a very difficult job. it's hard to maintain if you do not have the tools to do it well. mentoring makes a huge difference. those who had strong mentoring to coach you input classroom and help you with planning and
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curriculum planning but also collaboration with other teachers, often a reduced teaching load -- those arm more likely to stay in the first few years of teaching and to get confident and effective more quickly than those who don't have it. most of her states of programs, the funding for those mentors has been cut substantially during the recession. teaching conditions matter especially the extent to which teachers feel they can be efficacious and have help from their administrators to do the work they are trying to do. one of the things we can do is attend to these areas if we want to address the shortages. it's not just a matter of compensation. as one national board-certified teacher put it, moving to the
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next slide, he said i would move to a low performing school but i would like to see social services. accomplished leadership. when the single greatest factors is accomplished leadership. -- notve administrators being given the entire flexibility to make the changes, a big part of solving teacher shortages is getting principles in place who understand, who were well-prepared to make the kind of settings in which teachers can do effective work.
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it how might we proceed? onto the next slide, one important issue for addressing the current shortage is to keep the teachers we have. we pay attention to recruiting people. quite often the strategy has been to reduce the amount of training that people get, pull them into classrooms faster. unfortunately, this leads to higher attrition and higher turnover for those teachers. we get a leaky bucket phenomenon. our attrition rates were teachers in the united states are about twice as high as they are in places like canada, singapore, finland. we are at about 8% annual attrition and they are at about 3%. if we were to stop losing teachers at that rate, we would not have shortages. we need to think about this as part of the solution. the replacement cost for it
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teacher who leaves is between $15,000-$20,000 per teacher. if we were to treat people with the mentoring and support when they come in, that would be a better use of those dollars. the next slide -- one of the strategies that is emerging around the country as a way to treat this problem especially in a height need district, urban and rural districts and often those that serve a high concentration of children in poverty and students of color, is teacher residencies. it brings people in or a year of apprenticeship under the wing of an effective teacher while they are supported to get their preparation and credential and a masters degree. in san francisco, people who come in through this residency route which they have just doubled in size because of its
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success are staying at rates of 80% over five years in the city. 97% of those teachers stay in the profession somewhere. compared to their other new hires that come in in other pathways, only 38% stay. what happens is that they are paying the cost of that continual leaky bucket rather than actually meeting their needs in science and special education and math. next slide -- the residency approach which happens in about 50 places across the country includes a partnership between the district and universities, a year-long apprenticeship with an expert teacher who can demonstrate what a wonderful urban or rural teacher in that trinity knows
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how to do with specific kids and the district's specific way of working. it is coherent and makes sense. there is opportunities to observe other experts. there is a stipend, housing grant, health care, guaranteed job, and tuition remission. for that, the resident gives a three-year commitment to stay in the district and teach and a high need school. they get two years of coaching and mentoring after they start teaching to be sure that they are supported well enough by carefully trained mentors. it is what we know how to do but it's being brought together in a number of places. to close up, i'm on the last slide, what we should be thinking about doing in this era of shortages is not just reacting reflexively to getting
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warm bodies into classrooms and trying to get them to pass the mirror test. if you blow on the mirror and it fogs up, you're hired. we need to put in pathways to solve the problem once and for all. part of this is going to be building the pathway for preparation that is adequate and mentoring that gets people in and makes them effective and eat them in, residencies and other innovative preparation pathways can be part of the solution, grow your own pathways, they are successful in some parts of the country, getting professionals in special education and bilingual ,esl education through credential programs is another way to get people from the community prepared to teach and show we have mentoring for them. many districts are looking at
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salaries, housing subsidies, building dormitories, providing mortgage guarantees, health care, retirement options -- these are important for many teachers in deciding where to settle and whether to stay. then, of course, there is the key issue of addressing the conditions of teaching which especially involve colleagues in support of principles that make it possible for teachers to be effective in their work which is the greatest success and joy and compensation for most teachers, doing the job they want to do on behalf of children. thank you and i will pass this on to the other panelists. [applause] >> thank you. thank you so much, linda. i'm excited to introduce the next three panelists who will join us on the stage for an in-depth conversation.
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it's my honor to welcome emerson elliott with the counsel for the accreditation of educator preparation to the stage, invite kent maguire, the ceo of the southern education foundation and invite johanna hayes, the 2016 national teacher of the year to join me on the stage. [applause] as they get settled, i want to run through some quick slides and things we have in the papers i talk about. the first is looking at -- is this a cyclical issue or not? some of the numbers we have highlighted are the percentage of schools with at least one teaching vacancy. '99 versus 2011. it looks like it was worse in '99 than 2011 and what we see more of that now but we want to make sure we are understand there are cyclical parts of this. i think what linda talked about is what we need to keep in mind.
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the second is the difficulty in many of your schools in finding teachers for some specific teaching area. special education, sciences, foreign languages, art and at least one subject area was difficult to staff teaching positions. in 2000, it was 36% of the school that had the problem in 2012, it was 15% so it's still a big problem but some of these issues are deja vu all over again we want to talk about this. i want to start off i throwing the microphone to emerson to talk about what they are seeing through some of the accreditation issues and some of the issues outlined across the country. >> thank you, jeremy. many of the things linda is talking about are things that center a great deal of around starting preparation in colleges of education. i want to talk about the council for accreditation and
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preparation. frequently, people have no idea what and a creditor is or what it does and how much that function. intersects with state responsibility accreditation is a function, it's a nongovernmental function. it is a process that works on quality assurance through the process of writing standards that the profession agrees to generally. then there is aeer review of a self-study prepared by the institution seeking accreditation. the authority is invested in all states and you do this in all fields including medicine and law. you have a special interest in this area in education because of your constitutional responsibility for the education function. our partnership -- there is a slight here that shows where we are working very closely with
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states indirect partnerships in which we make arrangements for carrying out these accreditation reviews with state staff and classroom teachers. this is a very participatory peer review process. i want to pull this together by saying it operates by having explicit standards. sometimes those standards are challenging and a little bit difficult to figure out how institutions will meet. our standards are based on the best the profession can tell us from research and the practice of organizations and encouraging quality assurance systems that we can assemble to state standards.
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that come in the standards involved, including knowledge, they include partnerships for clinical reparation and they involve function with individuals with higher academic achievement. that has been an extremely controversial one of our standards. why we have that standard. why is it there? learning.nted to p-12 we had that standard because that it's one of the leverage moments in colleges having p-12 learning. there is an association between academic teachers and p-12 student learning. that is important for students at risk. they have found in international stories -- studies and local one
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spurt because that standard has been controversial we are taking a cool flirt -- taking a closer look at it. we have had conversations about that standard earlier this year. one of those with one of your representatives of that state. the message was mixed. the people who came from your state were very cognizant of conditions facing your teachers in that state. they said we do not want to do anything more difficult than teachers in your state. this moreking difficult by having that standard in your state? unbalanced, perhaps because this is a high quality measure and we should stick with it.
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that is what we did. >> what is the standard for high quality and where is that in the a has gone down over the last five years. that has happened in other decadesit also at best also at other times -- decades also at other times. this is a big issue that you have been involved in. >> thank you, jeremy. i am a recovering dean. [laughter] takes three years for every one year of service so i am dealt in recovery. -- i am still in recovery. i was up in philly when i did that. and i watched our enrollments think,as the state, i
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for all of the right reasons, -- the gpahe ge pa required. to make that change, they made it right at the time as the changing demographics in the called for pressure on all programs to increase the diversity of their enrollment. this tension is even more vivid where i am now, in the americans south. and lowudents of color income students are clearly in the majority of the students enrolled in public schools. the highest percentage of candidates of
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color are enrolled in preparation programs. my foundation has a long history of working with historically black colleges and universities who may not prepare a lot of teachers in the aggregate but prepare high percentages of teachers of color. i guess it is standard number three. [laughter] i know that because we have actually convened the leadership of those schools, a few times in the last year or so. we have done some of that in talking to folks to try to figure out how those standards can be appropriately met. i think there is a tension there that we ought to come up through to,vation -- that we ought through innovation, struggle with. if we do not, i heard randy say
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this at a panel of couple of weeks ago, we are really going to bump up against the problem that linda described where a legitimate interest in quality rubs right up against a legitimate and important need to theease considerably diversity of the workforce. one last thing i will say right now -- because linda mentioned this. i have a file folder all of education equity plans that i was looking at as i thought about coming here. and it is also true that the schools, poor schools with the highest concentration of needy students, as you go from state to state, the schools with the least well-prepared teachers, the folks with the least amount
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of experience and support, and the least diverse. so it is a challenge that we really do need to confront. >> johanna, your teacher -- your experience as teacher of the year for 2016, talk about your experience and what you have seen in the profession. principled leadership or teacher leadership come into play? how does mentoring help in these capacities? when we have teachers joined the profession right out of the prep program, can we keep them in those conditions for 5-10 years? >> thank you for having me. teacher,s a classroom when i think about the pipeline, i look at it as a classroom teacher.
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is very different from the policymaker or the recovering dean. [laughter] everything starts with my student. early exposure. as a high school teacher, it how few students consider teaching as a profession. i ask myself --what can i do about that? how can i improve those numbers? as teachers, we have to be very purposeful in our interactions with our worst dudes. there is so much negative and of thist perception career. it is a noble profession. when my students were interviewed for this process, they did not talk about context. they talked about our interactions. i would encourage the education community to watch what they say. how you perceive this
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professor. the life of a teacher of the year is very different from the life of a classroom teacher. i am sitting here. for the last decade, i have thought to be heard. that is not what teachers experience so that is not what dudes see. another thing i have done at my school. we started student internship where they work alongside teachers and see the positive of this professor. we have established vibrant tops give them the opportunity to see the perspective from our side. i have had to learn not to wait for things to happen. but to network within my community to find resources, mentorships, partnerships so teachers feel supported in other ways. wait for legislation to be passed where we have to create those opportunities for
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ourselves. as far as educator preparation programs, the biggest thing i have found -- i have visited wrap myselfannot around the requirements for a teacher in connecticut are very different from those in new york. you cannot even travel from state to state as a teacher. i am a national teacher of the year but if i decide to move to wisconsin, or alabama, i cannot. i cannot teach in alabama. i am not really sure what that means or why that is but we are in a room with people from all over the country so this is a conversation we need to have. i came out of college content ready. i could write a lesson. teach in thei community where i was born so i knew how to engage the
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community. i don't think preparation all programs do enough to teach developing teachers. teaching is not just about what happens in the classroom. there is not enough emphasis on putting teachers into the community. teaching them how to work with parents outside of the classroom. finally, i cannot leave the state without talking about recruiting minorities. so much of our problem lies in worked in thei fourth largest urban district in connecticut, it is a majority minority districts. i went through my whole career as a student with all female white teachers. if you are saying that you have to see it to be it, i did not know what that -- what that meant. none of them looked like me. minority students who have had negative experiences in the classroom, why would you go back -- why would you want to go back and
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teach in that environment? we have to think about cultural competency and letting those students see that they have value as well and they can add something to this profession. >> i think we want -- we ought just pause and soak in what she just said. [applause] statehave a lot of leaders in the audience with us. some of the difficulty are the funding issues. 50% k-12 budget is a must of what the entire state budget is. it is a big expense and compensation comes into play. how do we change compensation for our teachers? but teacher compensation makes up a large percentage of the state appropriation. south dakota had one of the statet increases in their
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for teachers. how those does compensation come into play? can that change some of the pipeline issues? >> definitely, teacher compensation comes into play. it is ayou mentioned large part of the school budget. one would issue that it would be even larger. a decision would be made by local school officials and state school officials to keep the investment at the level where it connects directly with the students as much as possible. one of the things you can learn by looking at the numbers about private schools and public schools is that somehow private schools have been able to keep administrative costs much more contained them public schools. there are a lot of reasons for that. they don't have to run a bus service on other things that it should be a conscious goal to
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keep administrative costs within reason. i think, if you are looking at working conditions, one of them is definitely pay. melinda's recommendations about working conditions, collaboration, ability for professional rewards and working with your colleagues and those kinds of things that are part of ist -- are part of what making people say they do not want to move into this profession. from the a report state of new york put out two years ago that says if you look ofthe academic achievement people coming in to prepare to be teachers in the state of new york, it has increased in the last 4-5 years compared to the time frame for that which is an interesting finding. a lot of people didn't understand why that was happening. the authors of this eddie's said it was because of policy
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initiatives in new york to encourage people to go into teaching and reward that field. it is not all that bleak. >> i think there are a number of things states can do. this is another area for innovation, arguably. but states shape markets. while i also think that we ought to figure out how to put more money into the system, there are also things we can do in the system we have to create more efficient markets that also help goals we some of the have both for the size and composition of the pipeline.
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there is no reason we could not negotiate reciprocity agreements . when you enter into agreements with states, you are using a common set of standards across the country and those could be to the licensing and certification requirements across states so there is less variation or rigidity in those markets. the common salary schedule is another area for real innovation. right now, the money is predictably in the back end of the schedule. if you are going to improve the pipeline, we need to move some of that money to the front end. we will have to think about how a teacher progresses over the course of a career. to a knowledge that
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careers are changing anyway and people do not stay in any given occupation for 30 or 40 years. that is not the growing pattern. implications for the structure and nature of the compensation system in terms of getting the mix. i was on a school board for eight years -- i am still recovering from that also. [laughter] but we had a very interesting policy discussion about what is the nature of the workforce we .anted in our community and then we got quickly to talking about -- does our salary schedule actually work toward that mix or against it? i think there is opportunity for innovation here that is not rocket science. we could figure some of these rings out. >> -- these things out.
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>> when we talk about compensation, it is a simplistic target. teachers do not do this for compensation. we would like to be valued and be respected and paid what we believe we are worth however, when we talk about working with there are so many opportunities for engaging other stakeholders, to partner with us. yearve 52 teachers of the as a result of scholastics. we think it is important that you are here and we will support this. [applause] there are a lot of very different -- i think that everyone is owning the problem collaborating our resources, working together,
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everyone taking responsibility for the part that belongs to them and fixing the problem in a holistic way. it is an isolated approach. how do we all work together? the program i started at my school was a result of me securing a $75,000 grant from my state. my school district said it did not have the money to do that. if my students came to meet with that same problem, my response would be -- figure it out. my response today is -- figure it out. [applause] up toare going to open questions from the audience. micill have mike runners -- runners. i want to get back to the reciprocity issues. the requirements for certification were put into
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place for what at the time was thought to be the right reasons, quality, different areas of expertise that they wanted it without reciprocity, some of those states are realizing that it is hard to recruit in other states were to bring in teachers for certain programs. reciprocity in many other professions is a pretty easy thing to figure out. you can sell insurance in multiple different states. you can work in the medical field in different states. >> it is silly. my kids in connecticut deserve the same high-quality education california,laska, and every other state in the country. it is silly to say that the quality of the teacher should very from state to state. kentucky and
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indiana but the requirements in the two states are very different. it just seems silly. that?you want to speak to organization that is into sharing information about what the requirements are from state to state. political to a higher level to get agreement on the kinds of issues you are talking about. i want to mention a special concern of mine about this area. the interstate sharing of information is really very important but it is very difficult because you immediately run into privacy issues. this organization is working on project to at least share information about criminal records and things like that
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which are important when you are moving people from one state to another. there are important things about experiences that teachers have had that would be important for hiring. it is very difficult to get states to agree to share that kind of information because of privacy issues. and maybe i am crazy about this but there could be a technical fix that would make it possible for the deity to be in a warehouse someplace that nobody has access to but it could allow links to be made and you could get the results of that in ways that would protect privacy. but i think that is the big challenge. the data quality campaign is working on that issue. and youu are a teacher have been teaching for a number of years and they say they are not going to pay more money, or be retested so they leave the
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profession and do something in education but not specifically hoopsng because of the they have to jump through to continue to be certified are so very different. as you said, people move and transition. staye are not expected to in one place their whole life anymore. if you want different results, we have to do things a little bit differently. electronicn use records in medicine and big exchanges, use personal data, every day to make sure that claims get paid everywhere in the country. possible in this era. there is a technical fix. >> are there any questions in the audience for our panel? one is up here. thinking of dr. hammons
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comments on high needs schools and the previous ed talk on getting the right shoes to fit the right kids. and the equity issue. have high need's schools and the other side of the district's higher income. but through accounting sleight of hand, the district reports greater inending is the title one with the additional funding. what they use though is the average teacher salary of the entire district so the lower experienced teachers in the high deep schools -- high need schools, you are spending less money in the high need schools and you are on the other side of the district. this is an issue that exists in
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all of the states. for the legislators in the room, have there been -- has there been research done on this. if it we had the money spent in the high need schools, we would handle the ratios better and we would have experienced teachers in those schools rather than the sleight-of-hand accounting of the averages of teacher salaries. i think it is happening in all of our states in those districts where you have half of the district in high need and the other without. >> i am not sure that the question is for anyone up here. but i do think it is happening. differently -- the intr district very nations in spending could be as great as the variations in spending
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between districts. in philly when i was at temple. we were looking at it across the look into resource equity issues. way to get at this -- i think you are right. the practical matter is that the tend who make more money to be concentrated in certain kinds of schools. it is a working condition issue. some teachers enjoy working in places where it is easier to work. oure created incentives for really competent teachers, and committed ones, to work in the schools with the greatest need,
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that would begin to solve the problem. or make a big difference in it. there were attempts at a point in the national board for professional teaching standards to run an experiment of creating incentives to concentrate holly -- highly qualified teachers in such schools. i was in new york and we were prepared to evaluate that if it happened. i just read an article on the plane coming here studying the performance based system in denver. what the article revealed is that the incentives to which actuallyresponded had more to do with showing up in and being inools
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settings with group performance awards. i think it is a writ -- it is a reality but it is also a dynamic that we could impact if we wanted to. life, i was inr the u.s. department of education . i can assure you that this issue has been studied and studied and studied. it is true. it is also a hot political issue. it falls under the maintenance of effort. believe that the current secretary of education has tried to write regulations that would trade -- change that phenomenon nd he was called on the carpet for going beyond the regulation authority that he had under that act.
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or talk to your congressman your senator about handling that issue. but it is a real issue. and it is a scandal and it has been in place since 1964. >> if it has been studied and studied and we know it to be true and it is what is best for we not doing it? we have people from all over the country here. i think from a classroom teacher, you look at things through a different lens. working, youis not don't continue to do it. i am just saying. if we know that this is an issue that is not working and we are discussing the problem -- i almost feel like we are admiring the problem. if we know where we need to go and the root we are taking to get there -- i am just saying.
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>> you will have a very fun issue on this issue. -- you will have a very fun year on this issue. we are getting close on time. i want to give each of you a chance to say one policy that you think needs to be looked at the closest in states dealing with teacher pipeline issues, what would you recommend? reciprocity, perception issues with the profession of? self -- with the profession itself? >> i would like to start with working conditions that teachers face in the school. research tells us that when people leave, they mention a but also the conditions and how professionally rewarding it is. the ability to work with
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colleagues and be supportive. i would want to start there and i want to conclude by saying that instead of viewing this as a current crisis to be dealt with in 10 minutes and moved on, it is an opportunity to think pay, things like teacher and teacher working conditions, and the connections between state policies and what we are asking of colleges in education. problem ofwe have a perspective. and narrative. decade mostlynd a seeing bad things about public education and then expect flock to it.le to [applause] it may be the single most public
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enterprise in the country. we use to think about it as how we grow and develop and nurture and support an economy. reduceddebate has been to notions of markets and competition and that the success in the classroom is strictly a function of an individual teacher. got to stopave talking about teaching as if we were staffing factories. as if teachers were widgets. if we could shift that perspective to one of professionalism and address the currentised about our orientation towards compliance and control and start thinking
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in terms of professional , weonsibility and judgment would come to the question about how to grow and fill the pipeline very differently. that is what i would encourage us to do. [applause] >> i think all of those things are very important. it is a combination. i think mentoring programs are very important. we have to look at education very differently. when teachers come into schools, invested in the communities where they teach. away from ao walk community that you do not care about. teachers are not seeing what is
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going on in their neighborhoods, learning what is happening in the lives of their students and working together, collaboratively. we need to look at education very differently. it is not just what happens inside the building. that will happen through partnerships and mentoring. >> this is a very important issue and one we continue to hear from the states about often. andslative chairs, cheese, governors they will be raffling with in the next few years. please join me in thanking our panel for their insights and sharing. [applause] we will transition now to our last session of concurrence. we are downstairs in the lincoln room. we will meet back here at 11:00 for dana goldstein. we will have our closing session officially at 11:00 a.m.
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thank you very much. >> thank you very much. i hope you had a great chance to enjoy some of the concurrent sessions that we just had. our closing keynote, i am excited to introduce our next beaker. dana goldstein is a journalist and the author of "the teacher wars." she also does many different and has contributed to a number of publications. she is known to write about education, social science, inequalities, criminal justice,
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women issues, cities and health. she is here to represent her research on the history of the teaching profession. policymakers, there is an opportunity for us all to help teachers in their practice. lee's join me in welcoming dana to the stage. -- please join me in welcoming dana to the stage. [applause] dana: i am really happy to be , an organization i have relied on for many years. i am grateful to receive this invitation. thank you to all of you who are before theth me here beautiful, long weekend to talk about the teaching of the desk history of the teaching profession. -- history of the teaching
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profession. i want to go back to 2011 when i began to write about my -- about the teaching profession. at that time, i thought that there was something not white right with our debate over public school teaching in america. teaching has become the most controversial profession discussed in our life. veteran teachers were undereducated, they were viewed as incompetent and insufficiently capable of closing the gap. there arehows that serious problems with public schools such as a curriculum that is not up to snuff with our international peers, too much rote teaching and the persistent segregation of our low income students.
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moral andgiant political shortcomings and yet, in 2011, i noticed that the predominate policy response to these issues was very narrow. use measures of student learning which was most often used as a euphemism for children's standardize test scores to identify and fire bad teachers. if those policies had been a smashing success, helping teachers would have been a good thing and i would be here today to celebrate everything that has happened in the past decade. unfortunately, there really was not the sort of systemwide success from those narrow policies. i am a journalist. i have traveled the country reporting on schools. i get to speak to a lot of
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teachers. i heard from many, pillars in their communities, award winners who said they were alienated and demoralized by the teaching accountability rhetoric and pulling act that up. 2008-2012, surveys found that the percentage of teachers that reported being very satisfied with their jobs, plummeted from 2% to 36%. 32% to 36%. i discovered there was actually nothing new about this. century, early 19th american policymakers have often tworayed teachers in unrealistic ways. angelsst portrayal is as
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or superhuman. to get a taste of that, i want to move back to the mid-19th century to horace mann, the father of our common schools movement which was a state-by-state effort before the universalto establish schooling for all american children. a great social justice movement. in 1863, this is how he described the ideal teacher. he is noting a female teacher. he said -- as a teacher, her feet sweetening your thought on which she treads and the celestial radiance beginning the work of repentance. [laughter] that is floral pros. in 2009 whenold me
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i asked him what is an effective teacher -- he said they walk on water. the second unrealistic portrayal andeachers is as embattled sometimes blamed for larger -- al problems which in 1800 before the common school movement, 90% of american classroom teachers were men. when reformers wanted to scale up the education system, they decided to hire only women teachers. was as taxes back then unpopular as it is now. back then, be paid it, half as much as men so this was a cost-effective way to school the american public. in order to raise support for this idea of ringing women into
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common schools resorted to vilifying and attacking male teachers. famous 1846 speech, catherine beecher, the leading female proponent of the common school movement, called male teachers incompetent, interpret, course, heart, unfeeling, too lazy and too stupid to be interested with children's education. now, this panic about male with thecombined unwillingness to have an
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expensive educational system really worked. the 19 hundreds, 90% of american teachers in northern cities were female. 1900 was a very difficult time public education. there were huge numbers of immigrants leading in meaning class sizes sometimes up to 60 kids. kids were sitting on the floor. there was such a huge need for teachers at the time, that girls were graduating in the sixth or seventh grade and entering the classroom. are a lot of places where we could go with a system like that. actually, it was thought among intellectuals at the time that the real problem was that women were teachers. too800, the problem was
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many men and in 1900, it was too many women. harvard wroteof that women teachers were physically weaker than men, and more apt to be worn out. unfortunately, panics and which policymakers called for large groups of people to be -- large groups of teachers to be fired continued. in an often forgotten historical interlude, after brown v wade board of education, 40,000 black teachers were fired in the south so they would not compete with white educators in newly integrated schools. a lot has changed for the good. when we talk about good teachers
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now, we focus on the impact they have on students. but the panic about bad teaching that i observed in 2011 has one major thing in common with the past panic. it was focused on getting rid of bad teachers then on figuring out what good teaching looked like. policymakers so you know that scale is very important. in america, we have 3.3 million teachers, and 100,000-200,000 are hired each fall. when i was going around the country reporting on teaching, i often asked the experts, how many ineffective teachers do you think there are? and i've heard that estimates ofged between 2% and 15%
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teachers. i sat down and did the math. be over 66,000 people. critiqued something arne duncan said earlier so now i want to give him credit for something else he said. he said -- we cannot fire our way to the top. wheres correct because will the new teachers come from and what systems have we put into place to assure that new teachers will do a better job? another reason we cannot fire our way to success is because research shows that teachers one cavity in the classroom matters. anee researchers conducted 800t year study of 50,004th-graders and fifth-graders. they found that in schools with high teacher turnover where many
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teachers were quitting their jobs each year, students lost significant amounts of learning in reading and math compared to similar peers in schools with low teacher turnover. students at the high turnover schools lost learning even if their own teacher was not new. to repeat, they lost learning even if their own teacher was if overall even teacher quality at the school remains constant. the affect of teacher turnover crosses classroom walls. while at first counterintuitive, i realized this is common sense because schools are communities. are administrators constantly recruiting and hiring, they have less time to focus on improving instruction. when many teachers resign each
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year, institutional memory is lost. there are weaker ties to the community. in short, turnover means that is spread expertise more thinly among the children. we need to do something we have never done before in american educational history. reform do educational with teachers instead of new teachers. to teachers. [applause] we must replicate what can be observed by watching the best teachers work. here are a few examples from around the country on how that is happening. i visited the kindergarten classroom in newark, new jersey. singing with her students and getting them excited about books with complex
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vocabulary words like hibernate and slither. these lowng her teach income kindergarten students these words was magic. it was part of a system. she was a mentor teacher. this program has developed programs to help early learners read and write. model habitshes within each classroom. students in these areas with these model classrooms, are outperforming their peers in reading. and this mentorship takes place outside of formal evaluation
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systems. this is trust among colleagues. i visited i -- a high school in memphis. teachers in their first year as an apprentice. this allows them to see happening through established discipline and rp. pport.- ra this is standard in many european and asian nations. teachers who participate in american residency programs as recruits or mentors have longer career longevity and have produced impressive learning gains for children. two years ago when my book was published, it looked to me like examples like the memphis
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teachers residency for isolated experiments. thathappy to report today this is no longer the case. over 150n has invested million dollars in teacher residencies. states and philanthropies are shifting their priorities. twoutt o tell you stately leading the way including iowa. these teachers all receive bonuses per year and they have time to do this work. that is important. some of the roles call for 75% of their time with children and 25% of their time with adults. roles but if they are not funded and they don't
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have time, it will not work. [applause] a believehas launched and prepare initiative. in 2014. it is bringing 1000 new teachers into the classroom with a year-long residency already ready under their belts. in both states, policymakers have realized that the role of the mentors is key. these programs are experimental. as we increase expectations around student teaching, it is important that we don't allow the teachers to get out of there core course that will give them the content knowledge they need to excel. we cannot do this on the cheap. . am cautiously optimistic if you are a policy maker, and wondering what you can do, i
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will mention a few other resources. called "oureport andonsibility, our promise" it discusses transforming the profession. they also talk about international examples. teachers have the opportunity to conduct original research on education policies adding to the body of knowledge on what works for students and allows teachers to maintain their own intellectual engagement in their career. onlynd decided that certain universities could operate teaching programs. teacher preparation became highly selective. open to people that
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graduated in the top 10% of their high school class. in korea, the career salary $55,000-$100,000 per year. engineer more than an and a little bit less than a doctor. there is also a website. it has ideas on how to redesign the teaching profession to be more collaborative. they suggest paying teachers up to 100% more. and stateight federal and philanthropic support, we can radically reimagine american teaching as a more creative and collaborative profession which will in turn help it become more prodigious. this would be a change from our historical pattern. underestimate what a big shift this would be.
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we will not get to a highly respected and effective teaching profession with canned or test prep driven lesson plans. we will get there by creating a career ladder that is -- that is challenging and rewarding. [applause] history teaches us that in the end, real educational improvement will be built on the expertise and leadership of our best teachers who will guide their colleagues to excellence. and thehow we will teacher wars. i'm happy to take questions. thank you. [applause] don't be shy.
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>> what do you think would be the most important change the federal government could do with respect to improving the profession as opposed to states? how do you distinguish the policy environment? >> the federal government through tools like a competition for dollars, race to the top was very effective in getting states to change their laws. there are other policies you could imagine being pushed through a competition like that. whether it is on career pathways, extra funding for mentoring teachers, or working to make our school system less segregated by race and class.
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there is a lot of innovative thinking about this at the local level and the federal government can help with funding. what we are seeing right now is secretary king is widening the conversation in terms of the policies that washington is promoting. at this moment, there are fewer levers for federal control. it is up to all of you at the state level to bring forward these ideas. it does not mean that for years from now there could be another big push on federal string pulling but that is not where we are right now. thank you so much for your research and your advocacy. michigan teacher of the year. regarding national board certification in terms of teacher mentoring.
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to support a culture of continuous improvement can exist across the country. >> national board certification is a model of the type of working items became about. i have visited schools where the whole staff was going through the national board process. that has been transformative for staffs. having national board certification and other systems and locally driven stuff, all of that together will move us in the right direction. we heard some today about increasing the respect of the teaching profession. we discussed it yesterday the civil rights desire to make sure that the best teachers go to the most needy students and schools
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almost like they are assets to be deployed. how does that get reconciled? keep educators with the economy that other perp -- that other professionals have? >> when educators are taking on a more difficult job, they need a paid more. hand, teachers are not motivated primarily my money. the federal government has done interesting research on offering to go to higher need schools. many are not interested. what they see as a lack of administrative support. the principles they want to work for are not in those places. principalsbring
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and school leaders into the discussion. we want to know who we will be accountable to. it is very challenging. another thing we can do is make sure that there are fewer schools that are overwhelmed by the challenges of poverty. i was in brooklyn. the school zoning is gerrymandered like a congressional district. where youth see poor kids living, there is a zigzag line drawn. all go to the same school. if we can make fewer schools that are overwhelmed with poverty rates, we will have more schools where teachers are eager to teach a wide range of our
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kids. we are running out of time. thank you everyone. have a good weekend. [applause] c-span's washington journal, live every day with news and policymakers that impact you. coming up for you this morning, a congressional discussion with politicos journalist and huffington post reporter to talk about what is left on the legislative session but -- before the house and congress before the summer -- before the summer session. and dennis ross will be here to discuss the fight against isis. he sure to watch washington journal beginning at 7:00 a.m. on c-span. house road to the white continues today with hillary clinton joined on the campaign trail by president obama. they will both speak at a rally in charlotte, north carolina. we will have it live at 3:00
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p.m. eastern on c-span two. month, watches c-span's coverage of the 2016 republican and democratic national conventions. every saturday night at 8:00 p.m. eastern, we will look past at -- we will look at past conventions. on saturday, we will focus on incumbent presidents that ran for reelection. eisenhower, 1956 republican convention in san francisco. the 1964 democratic convention in atlantic city with lyndon johnson. richard nixon in miami beach. the 1980 democratic convention with jimmy carter in new york city. george h.w. bush at the 1992 republican convention in houston. bill clinton in chicago for the 1996 democratic convention. and the 2004 republican convention in new york city with
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george w. bush. democraticican and national conventions, saturday nights at 8:00 p.m. eastern on c-span. in a series ofst national archive conversations about rights and justice which kicked off at the jimmy carter library and museum in atlanta in may. here is a conversation with president jimmy carter and a former ugandan war refugee. >> good afternoon everyone. welcome to a lovely day. i want to specifically think jimmy carter for giving us this opportunity. and look at him. [applause] i am -- >>


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